BRUCE LEE's - WAY OF THE INTERCEPTING FIST
JEET KUNE DO
Jeet Kune Do was founded by Bruce Lee because he felt the martial arts were too confined.
You can't fight in pattern he used to say because an attack can be baffling and not refined.
Jeet Kune Do was created by Bruce Lee to show us that an old art must transform.
Like the day turns to night and night to day the way of fighting must also reform.
Bruce Lee developed Jeet Kune Do but wished he didnt have a name for it!
Because the very words, Jeet Kune Do, already indicate it's another martial arts form.
Any form or style does restrict and his belief is now in conflict.
FootWok in JKD :
Your application of an effective technique depends on your footwork. The
speed of your footwork leads the way for fast kicks and punches. If you
are slow on your feet, you will be slow with your hands and feet. Jeet
Rune do footwork should not only be easy, rlaxed and alive, it should
also be firm. The traditional, classical horse stance seeks solidity in
stillness. This unnecessary, strenuous stance is not functional because
it is slow and awkward. when fighting, you have to move in any direction
instantly. Yin/Yang symbol
In the Yin/Yang symbol there is a white spot on the black
part, and black spot on the white one. This is to illustrate the balance
in life, for nothing can survive long by going to either extremes, be it
negativeness or positiveness. Therefore, firmness must be concealed in
gentleness, and gentleness firmness, and that is why a Gung Fu man must
be pliable as spring. Notice that the stiffest tree is most easily
cracked, while the bamboo will bend with the wind. So in Gung Fu, or any
other system, one must be gentle yet not giving away completely; be firm
yet not hard, and even if he is strong, he should guard it with softness
and tenderness. For if there is no softness in firmness, he is not
strong; in a similar way, if one has firmness concealed in softness, no
one can break through his defense. This principle of moderation provides
a best means of preserving oneself, for since we accept this existence
of the oneness (Yin/Yang) in everything, and do not treat it
dualistically, we thus secure a state of tranquility by remaining
detached and not inclining to either extreme. Even if we do incline on
one extreme, be it negative or positive, we will flow with it in order
to control it. This flowing with it without clinging is the true way to
get rid of it.
BRUCE LEE (1940 --- 1973) :
At the age of thirteen he studied under Master Yip
Man, leader of the Wing Chung School of Gung Fu.
Bruce Lee did more to bring the martial arts to the attention of the general public than any other twentieth century man.
Bruce Lee will live in our hearts forever!
At the age of twenty-two, Bruce authored an extremely unique text which he titled "CHINESE GUNG-FU: The Philosophical Art of SELF-DEFENSE." This book reflected his
preoccupation with spiritual as well as physical development.
Literally, "jeet" means to intercept or to stop; "kune" is the fist; and
"do" is the way, the ultimate reality---the way of the intercepting fist. Do remember, however, that "Jeet Kune Do" is merely a convenient name. I am not interested with the term itself; I am interested in its effect of liberation when JKD is used as a mirror for self-examination.
Unlike a "classical" martial art, there is no series of rules or classification of technique that constitutes a distinct "Jeet Kune Do" method of fighting. JKD is not a form of special conditioning with its own rigid philosophy. It looks at combat not from a single angle, but from all possible angles. While JKD utilizes all the ways and means to serve its end (after all, efficiency is anything that scores), it is bound by none and is therefore free. In other words, JKD possesses everything, but is in itself possessed by nothing.
There are no prearranged sets or "kata" in the teaching of JKD, nor are they necessary. Consider the subtle difference between "having no form" and having "no form"; the first is ignorance, the second is transcendence. Through instinctive body feeling, each of us 'knows' our own most efficient and dynamic manner of achieving effective leverage, balance in motion, economical use of energy, etc. Patterns, techniques or forms touch only the fringe of genuine understanding. The core of understanding lies in the individual mind, and until that is touched, everything is uncertain and superficial. Truth cannot be perceived until we come to fully understand ourselves and our potentials. After all, 'knowledge in the martial arts ultimately means self-knowledge.'
you will have to find out all by yourself. You must accept the fact that there is in help but self-help. For the same reason I cannot tell you how to "gain" freedom, since freedom exists within you. I cannot tell you what 'not' to do, I cannot tell you what you 'should' do, since that would be confining you to a particular approach. Formulas can only inhibit freedom, externally dictated prescriptions only squelch creativity and assure mediocrity. Bear in mind that the freedom that accrues from self-knowledge cannot be acquired through strict adherence to a formula; we do not suddenly "become" free, we simply "are" free.
Learning is definitely not mere imitation, nor is it the ability to accumulate and regurgitate fixed knowledge. Learning is a constant process of discovery, a process without end. In JKD we begin not by accumulation but by discovering the cause of our ignorance, a discovery that involves a shedding process.
A Good Sensei or Teacher :
A teacher, a really good sensei, is never a 'giver' of "truth"; he is a guide, a 'pointer' to the truth that the student must discover for himself. A good teacher, therefore, studies each student individually and encourages the student to explore himself, both internally and externally, until, ultimately, the student is integrated with his being. For example, a skillful teacher might spur his student's growth by confronting him with certain frustrations. A good teacher is a catalyst. Besides possessing a deep understanding, he must also have a responsive mind with great flexibility and sensitivity.
A FINGER POINTING TO THE MOON :
There is no standard in total combat, and expression must be free. this liberating truth is a reality only in so far as it is 'experienced and lived' by the individual himself; it is a truth that transcends styles or disciplines. Remember, too, that Jeet Kune Do is merely a term, a label to be used as a boat to get one across; once across, it is to be discarded and not carried on one's back.
These few paragraphs are, at best, a "finger pointing to the moon." Please do not take the finger to be the moon or fix your gaze so intently on the finger as to miss all the beautiful sights of heaven. After all, the usefulness of the finger is in pointing away from itself to the light which illumines finger and all.
As a teenager, Lee had two major interests : cha-cha and kung fu. At the age of 13, he was beaten by a street gang. This incident incited Bruce to start studying the Wing Chun style of kung fu under the guidance of a martial arts master named Yip Man. In 1958, he won the Crown Colony Cha-Cha Championship. Lee became a problem for his parents, constantly getting involved in streetfights that sometimes drew the attention of the local police.
At the age of 18, his parents decided it was safer for him to return to the US and exercise his American citizenship. After Bruce arrived in San Francisco, he soon moved to Seattle, where he did various part-time jobs around the Chinese community. He earned his high school diploma from the Edison Technical School. While he was studying Philosophy at University of Washington in 1961, the young man reperfected his martial arts skills and created his own system, which he later named 'Jun Fan Gung Fu'. He opened his first martial arts school, the 'Jun Fan Gung Fu Institute', near the university campus. Lee also met a fellow student named Linda Emery, who would later become his wife. Despite objections from their own families, they were married on August 17, 1964.
The Legend :
History was made in the summer of 1973. Bruce Lee was the first Asian actor to earn an international following. The popularity of 'Enter The Dragon' permitted the integration of martial arts into mainstream Western culture. His work has permitted other Chinese actors, such as Jackie Chan, Jet Li and Michelle Yeoh, to enjoy success in North America without ever having to worry that their ethnicity will get in the way of it.
Unfortunately, Lee never saw the fruits of his labor. Bruce Lee died mysteriously on July 20, 1973, at the age of 32, from a cerebral edema, which is a swelling of the brain. The official cause of death is an allergic reaction to a headache tablet he took called Equigesic. The full circumstances surrounding his death have never been fully explained, and perhaps we will never, ever know exactly how or why he died so suddenly. The world may have lost an incredible hero, but we have also gained an immortal legend.
Bruce Lee was the greatest Martial Artist of the 20th century, considered to be the Ultimate Fighter of all time. He is also considered the "FATHER" of the Modern Action Movie. His personal training consisted of day-by-day exercising (500 kicks per leg and up to 2000 punches per day) was well documented in his personal memoranda. This made Bruce Lee the deadliest man on the planet and the most physically fit. Twenty-six years after his death his art of Jeet Kune Do is still debated amongst the martial arts community (Is it an art, a method or concept). The reasons for these frequently asked questions were brought on by Bruce Lee's own description of Jeet Kune Do as "Using no way as way" and "Having no limitation as limitation".
These phrases had sparked the controversy that had spanned more than two decades. In 1996, a breakthrough by the first lady of martial arts Linda Lee Cadwell (Widow of Bruce Lee) brought forth the formation of what is known as "The Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do Nucleus". This called together all surviving students of Bruce Lee. The Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do Nucleus is now known as The Bruce Lee Educational Foundation.
Bruce started training in the martial arts mainly to overcome his fear of being humiliated in a street fight. As a teenager he began to get into more and more fights for no reason at all. And if he didn't win he was furious. As a result, under the great master Yip Man's Wing Chun (meaning "beautiful springtime") teachings, Bruce became a proficient martial artist, not to mention a feared street fighter. However, Bruce actually had more than one teacher. As time went by, Bruce grew. His enthusiasm towards martial arts was more apparent. He was young, energetic and competitive. He soon became acquainted with Wing-chun's basic Kung Fu. Since he was very clever, Mr Yip loved him very much and taught him many secret techniques in Win Chun Kung Fu. He became an expert in Wing Chun Kung Fu.
When Bruce was about fourteen, he discovered that "dancing" could be a great deal of fun. He had a real Knack for it and rapidly became quite polished, never lacking eager partners. Much of the balance and footwork became evident in his later fighting style. His favorite was the Cha Cha, and he spent many hours practicing extremely complex dance routines. He eventually became the Hong Kong Cha Cha Champion.
At the age of 19, Bruce was becoming more and more involved in street fighting. So in 1959 his parents decide to sent him to live with friends in the United States, Where he would finish high school. While he was staying in Seattle, Bruce was allowed to live in the restaurant's attic in exchange for his services as a busboy and waiter. Bruce finished high school and went on to college. By day he attended the University of Washington and nights he was working in the restaurant. After a few months of this, he decided that this lifestyle was not for him. He quit his job at the restaurant and began teaching Kung-fu. At the age of twenty-two, Bruce authored an extremely unique text which he titled "CHINESE GUNG-FU: The Philosophical Art of SELF-DEFENSE." This book reflected his preocupation with spiritual as well as physical development.
Before Bruce finished his Bachelor Degree in Philosophy, he meet Linda Emery, a pretty blonde coed, enrolled in his class and in 1964 they were married. Shortly afterward, they moved to California. In 1965, Bruce's son, Brandon, was born. Couples years later his daughter Shannon was born.
When Bruce debuted to the world giving a demostration of Martial Arts at Ed Parker's 1964 internationals, Ed was getting it all down on film. Fate intervened a few years later while Ed was teaching Jay Sebring (one of the people later killed along with Sharon Tate in the Sharon Tate murders). Jay mentioned that his friend Bill Dozier (the producer of "Batman 1966 T.V. series") had bought the rights to the "Green Hornet" and needed a Kato. Parker showed Dozier the film on Bruce and the rest is history. As Kato on the popular T.V. series "The Green Hornet", Bruce introduced millions to the beauty, creativity and power of the martial arts.
In the U.S. Bruce knew many good friends in the field of martial arts. One of them was an expert in the nunchaku and Ka-li - Mr. Dan Inosanto. (Bruce Lee is the one in the center without shirt and Dan is the one whom is in the Bruce's right.) They exchanged their techniques. In short while, Bruce grasped the essential points in the use of the nunchaku and Ka-li. The beginning of the seventies saw Bruce spending more and more time between Hollywood and Hong Kong. Offers began pouring in from many different sources and he was continually in transit firming up commitments and scouting locations for future projects. In constant demand, his fees escalated accordingly to such astronomical rates as $275.00 per hour. However the perpetuation of Jeet Kune Do was still very important to him so before he embarked for good on his glamorous new profession abroad, he turned the responsability of his teaching over to his head instructor and friend, Dan
life of Bruce Lee ! :
'Chi' of Bruce Lee :
With one kick Bruce could snap eight two-inch boards held togather by masking tape.
He could kick in the air and break the board that are dangled in the air. In 1965 Bruce would cut through two-inch boards dangled before him.
There was a giant bag in Lee's garage of five feet wide and eight feet high. Bruce could send it flying with his best kick.
One Inch Punch was his favorite stunt. He would punch one inch from solar plexus and send the guy across the room.
Running was the important part of Lee's workout. He used to cover atleast a couple of miles a day.
After this, a series of Tai Chi movements, an ancient art that Bruce felt to be ideal for the purpose of keeping him both mentally and physically fit.
Then there were the isometric exercises whereby the muscles are improved by pitting them against an immovable object - such as wall.
It is said that Bruce Lee through-out the day just never let up. If he was eating, he'd be pushing one hand up against the table; often whilst just standing around talking, he'd be pounding a fist into the cupped other hand. He frequently read a book with dumb-bell in other hand.
The Lee's sensational kicks were the product of high bar training and kicking trees.
Students says that Lee's home was filled with training devices. He had stretching device to stretch your legs. There were things available to toughen hands and feet. Lee used rice, sand and green peas. He also used special bags for punching and kicking
Jeet Kune Do ultimately is not a matter of pretty technique but a highly developed personal spirituality and physique. JKD is not a matter of technology but of spiritual insight and training---Bruce Lee
Jeet Kune Do is a most valuable theory for developing martial arts.As Bruce would explain, Jeet means to stalk or to intercept, Kune means fist or style and Do means the way or ultimate reality.
There are six principle in JKD that should be considered by the martial artists who intend to gradually develop skills of their respective systems.Briefly the principles are:
1)Multicultural Arts:Since no one has a monopoly on knowledge, it behooves the prudent student to develop expertise in skill to be used in all four fighting ranges (Kicking, Punching, Trapping and Grappling), without the bounds of cultural restrains.
2)Range:All combat is governed by principle of range or fighting distance. A person who controls his distance controls the fight. If one's preferred range is kicking distance, then the other ranges must be supplemented to strengthen combative efficiency.
3)Five ways of Attack:There are five ways of offensively approaching an opponent. These methods are - Direct, Combination, Immobilization and Rhythm disruption attacks.
4)Individual and Instructor Preference: The often used phrase "My truth is not your truth" stems from the principles of individual and an instructor preference. Based on individual needs and abilities we tend to focus our skills in certain areas.
5)Environment: All combative forms reflects , to extent, a preferred social, political and structural environment. Understanding the limitation of a fixed system or technique and not being bound by these limitations is of common concern.
6)Absorb what is useful : Once the practitioner understands and can utilize the first five principles of JKD, the sixth principle " Absorb what is useful" takes on a new meaning. By investigating multicultural arts, experiencing the ways of attacks, appreciating the importance of instructor and individual preference and recognizing the restrains of environment and range, one can be more adapt at incorporating techniques into a system that has the potential to naturally flow.
Once Bruce said"The hight of cultivation is really nothing special. It is merely simplicity, the ability to express the utmost with the minimum."
Bruce Lee's Life :
The Story begins with the small woman in San Francisco's Chinese hospital on November 27, 1940. The child she bore that day was her forth child. He was born in the year of the Dragon, during the morning hour of the Dragon. She named him Lee Yuen Kam. To his fan he became Lee Siu Loong, "The Little Dragon". A nurse in the hospital decided the infant needed an even more American name and dubbed the baby boy Bruce Lee.
Bruce Lee was a precocious child. He was forever jumping, talking, playing or moving. Then just as suddenly he could disappear into his room or a far corner and read a book for hours or become completely self-absorbed.
During Bruce's formative years they lived near the peak on Hong Kong island with an aunt and uncle. Even as a boy Bruce was considered fairly good looking and knew it. He liked to have his own way and by the time he was teenager he was an out-and -out bully. He had a natural flair for leadership. In one encounter Bruce got his head nearly knocked off and was inspired at thirteen to begin serious study of the martial arts as self-defense. His father Lee Hoi Chuan had been a student of the martial arts and shared some of his knowledge with his son. Bruce always said his father was his first martial arts teacher.
Bruce began studying Chinese Kung Fu which he always pronounced "Gung Fu" when he was thirteen. Bruce enrolled in Wing Cheun School and studied for the next two years with Yip Man. Once Bruce was committed to Kung Fu he was nearly fanatic. He would sit at dinner pounding one hand on a stool at his side to toughen it even as he ate and made conversation.
Bruce was a fantastic dancer and in 1958, shortly before he left Hong Kong, he won a Crown Colony Cha-Cha championship.
Since Bruce had been born in the US, he had to decide when he reach eighteen if he wanted to go to States to retain his U.S. citizenship. He did and in the fall of 1958, with only $100 to his name, Bruce booked passage to San Francisco, third-class on a freighter.
Bruce Lee's immediate problem upon his arrival was his living conditions. He was placed with a friend of his father's in San Francisco. For a short time Bruce gave dancing lessons to earn pocket money. Bruce jumped at the chance a few months later to move to Seattle where he would live above a Chinese restaurant and work part-time as a waiter.
At eighteen Bruce was outspoken and powerful. He was already teaching a few friends the way of Kung Fu and attended Edison Vocational Highschool days. Nights he would either work in the restaurant as a waiter or practice his Kung Fu. Bruce began taking pupils and shortly founded the Jun Fan Jung Fu Institute. During his final year at the University of Washington, Bruce met Linda, who became part of the group around him.They were married in a small Seattle Protestant church a short time later.
In February 1965 that Brandon Bruce Lee was born, Lee Hoi Chuen, Bruce's father, died in Hong Kong.Bruce lived with Linda, Brandon and latter Shannon in Los Angeles and survived on some television and film parts his students helped him arrange. He told people close to him with fiery conviction, that he would be the biggest, most important film star in the world someday and he really meant it.
Opinions : What They Say?
Bruce was extremely fast.......he was fanatic. He was the most fanatical trainer of the martial arts that I have ever encountered. He lived it, breathed it and slept it. from morning to night his mind was martial arts. And what made him so great was that he wasn't bogged down in tradition. He was always looking for ways of improving himself.
He could make the air pop when he hit.
Bruce Lee has passed away. To me he is my hero; he was the best in the world...... He will always be the best in my heart.
---Benny "The Jet" Urquidez
Bruce kicks high, I kick lower; Bruce was serious, I' am comedy, Jackie is Jackie and Bruce is Bruce. Its a different style of approach.
I did not discover Bruce Lee, just as much as he did not discover me, as many people are now saying. what I really did was remember him... His charisma stack in my mind. I kept thinking of a screen vehicle for him. It would have to be a starring part. I was sure. I couldn't have seen him doing anything less.
THE LEGEND ON SCREEN
After the "Green Hornet" and
"LongStreet" television series, Bruce was asked to star in the television series "Kung-Fu." But Bruce was later turned down by the producers of the "Kung-Fu" TV series, because they thought Bruce was too "Oriental" looking for mainstream american audiences. Then, after a little while, he went to Hong Kong to make a series of action movies, which propelled him into international superstardom. As time went on, Bruce was determined to upgrade his films. Eventually he incorporated his philosophy and Jeet Kune Do into his films. Bruce Lee only made 4 films about Martial Arts and another one incomplete (Game of Death). That's made 5 of them The Big Boss
Fist of Fury
With the box office success of The Big Boss behind him, Bruce asserted more of himself in each succeeding film. In The Chinese Connection his fight scenes were flawless and believable. His simple and direct fighting style of Jeet Kune Do would set the standard for all martial arts films to come.
Return of The Dragon
Return of The Dragon originally titled Way of The Dragon, was his third film, was a total Bruce Lee production. He wrote it, directed it, cast it and chose the locations. It was unheard of for a Chinese production company to go the expense of filming in the famed Coliseum in Rome. Chuck Norris, the famous American martial artist, was flown in to make the fight scenes still more exciting and to give this film a true international flavor.
Enter The Dragon
Enter The Dragon is considered by many to be the ultimate martial arts film of all time. Major motion picture stars along with American cinematography techniques were futured. Bruce also showed his weapons ability with the nunchaku and the Filipino double sticks. This was also the only film using his own voice in English.
Game Of Death
"The Game of Death" was to be his crowing achievement and would have been if he were around to complete it. He wanted to show his gratitude to his former students and instructors by including them in this film. Dan Inosanto was his Filipino-Style opponent, Taky Kimura, unable to attend, was to have been his preying Mantis opponent and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar was his unknown style opponent.
Lee's Death :
Probably the most believable and probable story is the following:
Throughout Bruce's life, he was continually being challenged by other fighters. It was only natural for the Gung-fu legend to accept the challenge and kick some real ass. Although Bruce won all the fights he was involved in, he was probably hit numerous times in the head. Numerous blows to the head can in fact cause brain anyeurisms, the claimed "cause of death" from the autopsy.
During the filming of Enter the Dragon, Bruce fainted during a voice dubing session. That day the air conditioning was turned off, so as not to cause abnormal background noise in the recording. When some crew memebers went to check on Bruce, Bruce woke up and pretended that he was looking for his glasses that he dropped.
On July 20, 1973, Raymond and Bruce visit Betty Ting Pei at her apartment to discuss her role in Game of Death. That evening plans had been made for them all to meet George Lazenby over dinner and enlist him for a part. Bruce explains that he has a headache, takes a prescription pain killer offered by Betty, and lies down on her bed to rest prior to dinner. Bruce never woke up. The pain killer was believed to have caused an allergic reaction, which increased the brain aneurism.
Some tabloid reporters, wanting to find "dirt" on everyone, spread a rumor that Bruce and Betty Ting Pei were having an affair, and that Bruce died while having sex with Betty. For several years after Bruce's death, Betty refused to be interviewed. She thought it was best for her and Bruce's reputation, to stay out of the media. Years later, Betty goes on television and denies that Bruce and here were ever involved intimately. As with most mysteries, only the parties involved will know the truth.
Despite the rumors and proven causes of death, Bruce still remains the most brillant martial artist in the world. It is tragic that he died such a young death, but his short life was very rewarding. Bruce's acheivements will be noticed for years to come.
On Bruce Lee's Death The circumstances surrounding Bruce Lee's death in July 20 of 1973 unleashed a storm of discontent which swept across Asia, and throughout the rest of the world, leaving in its wake a tangled welter of claims and counterclaims regarding the causes of his dying. His physical fitness was too well known for people to accept that he might have simply died of natural causes. (I'm personally think it was a natural causes.)
No one had any premotions of the disaster to come when Bruce went to a meeting with Raymond Chow (Bruce's Producer) at Betty Ting Pei's apartment to talk about finish The Game of Death script, which contained a major role for Betty. Raymond had left them late in the afternoon, planning to meet again later for dinner. Bruce complained of a headache and Betty gave him Equagesic, an aspirin compound she often used herself. Bruce went to lie down in the bedroom. Raymond called in midevening to find out why they had not shown up at the restaurant and Betty told him Bruce was asleep. Chow went back to Betty's apartment and attempted to rouse Bruce, without success. They began to get alarmed and Betty called her doctor, who tried unsuccessfully for several minutes to revive him. They called for an ambulance.
Bruce Lee the "Little Dragon," was dead on arrival at the hospital. Emergency treatment was used to try to stimulate his heart and breathing, but there was no life.
Linda arrived with Chow to be with Bruce at the end, but they were too late. How Bruce died is a matter of public record---a brain aneurysm in the vicinity of the cerebral edema, which surfaced in May of 1973. Whether it was present from birth or caused later by a blow to the head is pure conjecture. In any case, he was living on borrowed time with a damaged blood vessel in his head capable of exploding at any moment. The medicine prescribed for him, Dilantin, was not to deal with the problem of edema or aneurysm, but for the epilectic convulsions brought about by the edema. So a cerebral aneurysm claimed him as he slept, unfortunately in Betty Ting Pei's apartment. That Bruce suffered a severe brain trauma two months earlier was known to many people. That a weakness was present, whether congenital or brought about through stress or a hard blow to the head, was a matter of knowledge to many in Hong Kong, particulary in the film industry. Hong Kong is stunned by the announcement of Lee's death. Thousands line the streets to honour his symbolic burial parade and scores of spectators were injured in the crush. Steel barriers were erected along the coffin's route to restrain the crowd.
Bruce Lee was buried in Lake View Cemetery in Seattle U.S.A. Then, Brandon Lee was buried next to his father on April 3, 1993. To this day, 24 years after the Bruce death, fresh flowers are found on his gravestone and his son every day.
Bruce Lee will live in the movies and Martial Arts forever!
Another Tragic Lost
Actor and martial artist Brandon Lee, the son of the legendary Bruce Lee, died in Wilmington, North Carolina U.S.A. in March 31, 1993 after being shot in the abdomen during the filming of THE CROW movie. He was 28 years old. His father was only 32 years old when he passed away in 1973.
The Basic Theory Of Yin And Yang
In The Art Of Gung Fu
by Bruce Lee
The basic structure of Gung Fu is based on the theory of Yin/Yang, a pair of mutually complementary forces that act continuously, without cessation, in this universe. This Chinese way of life can be applied to anything, but here we are interested in its relationship to the art of Gung Fu.
The black part of the circle is called Yin. Yin can represent anything in the universe as: negativeness, passiveness, gentleness, insubstantiality, femaleness, moon, darkness, night, etc. The other complementary part of the circle is Yang, which represent positiveness, activeness, firmness, substantiality, maleness, sun, brightness, day, etc. The common mistake most people make is to identify this Yin/Yang symbol, T'ai-Chi, as dualistic; that is Yang being the opposite of Yin, and vice versa. As long as we separate this "oneness" into two, we won't achieve realization. Actually, all things have their complementary part; It is only in the human mind and his perception that they are being separated into opposites. The sun is not the opposite of the moon, as they complement and are interdependent on each other, and we cannot survive without either of them. In a similar way, a male is but the complement of the female; For without the male, how on earth do we know there is female, or vice versa. The "oneness" of Yin/Yang is necessary in life. If a person riding a bicycle wishes to go somewhere, he cannot pump on both the pedals at the same time or not pumping on them at all. In order to move forward, he has to pump one pedal and release the other. So the movement of going forward requires this "oneness" of pumping and releasing. Pumping then is the result of releasing, and vice versa; Each being the cause of the other.
In the Yin/Yang symbol there is a white spot on the black part, and black spot on the white one. This is to illustrate the balance in life, for nothing can survive long by going to either extremes, be it negativeness or positiveness. Therefore, firmness must be concealed in gentleness, and gentleness firmness, and that is why a Gung Fu man must be pliable as spring. Notice that the stiffest tree is most easily cracked, while the bamboo will bend with the wind. So in Gung Fu, or any other system, one must be gentle yet not giving away completely; be firm yet not hard, and even if he is strong, he should guard it with softness and tenderness. For if there is no softness in firmness, he is not strong; in a similar way, if one has firmness concealed in softness, no one can break through his defense. This principle of moderation provides a best means of preserving oneself, for since we accept this existence of the oneness (Yin/Yang) in everything, and do not treat it dualistically, we thus secure a state of tranquility by remaining detached and not inclining to either extreme. Even if we do incline on one extreme, be it negative or positive, we will flow with it in order to control it. This flowing with it without clinging is the true way to get rid of it.
When the movements in Yin/Yang flow into extremes, reaction sets in. For when Yang goes to the extreme, it changes to Yin; and when Yin (activated by Yang) goes to the extreme, it returns back to Yang (that is why each one is the result and cause of the other.) For example, when one works to the extreme, he becomes tired and has to rest (from Yang to Yin). This incessant changing of Yin/Yang is always continuous.
The application of the theory of Yin/Yang in Gung fu is known as the Law of Harmony, in which one should be in harmony with, and not against the force of the opponent. Suppose A applies strength on B, B shouldn't oppose or gives way completely to it. For these are but the two extreme opposites of B's reaction. Instead, he should complete A's force, with a lesser force, and lead him to the direction of his own movement. As the butcher preserves his knife by cutting along the bone and not against it, a Gung Fun man preserves himself by following the movement of his opponent without opposition or even striving (Wu-Wai, spontaneous, or spirit action). This spontaneous assisting or A's movement as he aims it will result in his own defeat.
When a Gung fu man finally understood the theory of Yin/Yang, he no longer "fusses" with so-called "gentleness" or "firmness"; he simply does what the movement requires him to do. In fact, all conventional forms and techniques are all gone, his movements are those of everyday movements. He doesn't have to "justify" himself like so many other masters have, claiming his spirit or his internal power; to him, cultivation of martial art in the long run will return to simplicity, and only people of half-way cultivation justify and brag about themselves.
Fancy Footwork :
by Bruce Lee and M. Uyehara
In jeet kune do, mobility is heavily emphasized because to-hand combat is a
matter of movements. Your application of an effective technique depends on
your footwork. The speed of your footwork leads the way for fast kicks and
punches. If you are slow on your feet, you will be slow with your hands and
feet. Jeet Rune do footwork should not only be easy, relaxed and alive, it should
also be firm. The traditional, classical horse stance seeks solidity in stillness. This unnecessary, strenuous stance is not functional because it
is slow and awkward. when fighting, you have to move in any direction instantly.
Proper footwork contributes to hitting power and your ability to avoid punishment. Good footwork will beat any kick or punch. A moving target is
definitely more difficult to hit than a stationary one. The more skillful
you are with your footwork, the less you have to use your arms to block or
parry kicks and punches. By moving deftly, you can elude almost any blow
and prepare your fists and feet to attack. Besides evading blows, footwork allows you to cover distance rapidly,
escape out of a tight corner and conserve your energy to counter with more
sting in your punch or kick. A heavy slugger with poor footwork will exhaust himself as he futilely attempts to hit
his opponent. You should be able to move rapidly in any direction so you are
well-balanced to withstand blows from any angle. Your feet must always be
directly under your body. The on-guard stance presents proper body balance
and a natural alignment of your feet.
To advance, do not cross or hop. Instead, shuffle your feet. At the
outset you will feel clumsy and slow. As you keep practicing this movement daily,
however, you will develop your speed and grace. To do the forward shuffle, stand in the on-guard position. Slide your front
foot forward about a half-step, widening the space between your feet
jus for a second as you slide your rear foot forward. When your rear foot is
moved forward, you should be back at the original position. To advance
further, repeat the process. While doing this, maintain your balance and keep your guard up. You should
not be flat-footed; you should glide on the balls of your feet. Learn to
move like a tightrope walker. Keep both of your knees slightly bent and relaxed. Your front foot should
be flat, but do not plant it heavily on the floor. It should be light and
raised intuitively about V8 of an inch. Your rear heel should almost always be raised in stillness or in motion. It
is raised slightly higher than the front foot, about one-fourth or one-half
of an inch. When your rear heel is raised, it facilitates switching your weight
immediately to your other foot when delivering a punch. Your raised back
heel allows you to react quickly and act as a spring, giving in to blows
from any angle. Naturally, your heel should drop at the impact of the blow. There is no
fast rule that says your heels should be constantly raised or when they
should be flat. This depends on several factors. including body position
and your reactions.
In the advanced shuffle, you should be light on your feet and your weight
should be evenly distributed, except for just a split second when you are
advancing your front foot. At that instant, your weight would shift to that
foot just a little. In retreating or moving backward cautiously, reverse your movement. The
basis behind the backward shuffle is like the advance. From the on-guard position, slide or shuffle your rear foot backward about
half a step, widening the space between your feet for just a split second
as you slide your front foot backward. When the front foot is in place, you
should be in the on-guard position and perfectly balanced. Unlike the advance shuffle, your weight should shift slightly to your rear foot for
just an instant. To retreat further, continue to repeat the process. Learn
to be light on your feet continuously, and keep your rear heel raised.
The forward and backward shuffle must be made with a series of short steps
to retain complete balance. This position prepares you to shift your body
quickly to any direction and is perfect for attacking or defending.
The quick advance is almost like the forward shuffle. Begin in the jeet kune do on-guard position and step forward with your
front foot about three inches. This seemingly insignificant movement keeps
your body aligned and maintains your balance as you move forward. It also
allows you to move with both feet evenly supplying the power. Without this
short step, your rear foot does most of the work. As soon as you glide your front foot, quickly slide your back foot up to
replace your front foot's previous position. Unless you move your front foot instantly, your rear foot cannot be planted properly because your
front foot will be partially in the way. Just before your rear foot makes contact with your front foot, slide your
front foot forward. At this position, if you have not taken another step,
you should be back at the on guard position with your feet apart at a natural distance.
The purpose of this drill is to move your body quickly, about eight feet or
more, in several steps. Except for the first three-inch step, the series of
steps should be made at a normal walking space.
The footwork for the quick retreat or rapid backward movement is similar to
the quick advance except you move in the opposite direction. From the on-guard position, move your front foot back. Your front foot,
like during the quick advance, initiates the movement. Your rear foot
follows a split second later. Unless you move your rear foot before your
front foot makes contact, your front foot cannot be planted properly. Unlike the quick advance, you do not have to slide any of your foot. It is
just one quick motion, but your body should be in alignment and in balance.
If you were to move just once, you should be at the on-guard position. But
the purpose of this movement is to move your body four feet or more. The quick movement and shuffle can only be accomplished by being light on
your feet. The best exercise for overcoming the force of inertia to your
feet is skipping rope and shadowboxing several minutes. While exercising,
you must constantly be conscious of keeping your feet "light as a feather."
Eventually, you will be stepping around with natural lightness. You must move without any strain, gliding on the balls of your feet,
bending your knees slightly and keeping your rear heel raised. There should
be sensitivity in your footwork. Quick or relaxed footwork is a matter of proper balance. In your training,
as you return to an on-guard position after each phase of maneuvers, shuffle on the balls of your feet with ease and feeling before continuing
on your next maneuver. This drill enhances your skill as it simulates
actual fighting. Unless there is a strategic purpose, forward and backward movements should
be made with short and quick slides. Lengthy steps or maneuvers that cause
your weight to shift from one foot to the other should be eliminated except
when delivering a blow. At that moment, your body is imbalanced-restricting
your attack or defense effectively. Crossing your feet in motion is a bad
habit because it tends to unbalance you and expose your groin area. The movement should not be a
series of hops or jerks. Both feet should be slithering rhythmically just above the surface of the floor like a graceful
ballroom dancer. Visually, your movement should not be like a kangaroo
hopping across the open plain. Instead, it should be like a stallion galloping with even, rhythmic and graceful strokes.
The forward burst or lunge is the quickest jeet kune do movement. It is also one of the hardest to
learn because it depends on good coordination. It is used to attack with a side kick or to counter an
attack such as a kick. The forward burst is one deep lunge. From an on-guard position, step
forward about three inches with your front foot, like the quick advance movement. This will align and balance your body.
For faster reactions, use your lead hand as an impetus. By sweeping your
lead hand upward, you create momentum. This feeling is similar to what it
would be like if someone was jerking you forward suddenly while you were
holding onto a rope. This hand sweep also distracts your opponent and throws his timing off.
While sweeping your hand upward, swing your hips forward simultaneously,
dragging your rear foot forward. In that split instant, your weight is heavily on your front foot. At this moment, your leg straightens out to
thrust your body forward. Sometimes, on an especially deep, penetrating leap, your rear foot may be
ahead of your front foot while you are gliding in the air. You must land on
your left foot only, as your right foot is delivering a side kick.
As soon as you have completed your kick, you should quickly place your right foot down and assume the on guard position. That one leap should
carry your body at least two wide steps.
In a recent test with the forward burst, it took only 3/4 of a second to
travel eight feet. By applying the classical lunge movement or stepping by
crossing your feet, it took one and one-half seconds to reach the same distance-twice the time.
The leap should be more horizontal than vertical. It is more like a broad
jump than a high jump. You should try for distance by keeping your feet close to the floor. Your knees should always be bent slightly so that the
powerful thigh muscles (springy expressiveness) are utilized.
When practicing this footwork in the beginning, don't worry about your hands. Just keep them in the regular jeet kune do position and concentrate
on your footwork. Once you are accustomed to the foot movement with proper
balance, learn to sweep your hand forward just before each leap.
To develop speed and naturalness in your movement, adopt the following exercise in your daily training.
From an on-guard position, do the forward burst without penetrating too
deeply. Sweep your hand upward and leap forward without straining yourself.
Quickly place your front foot down without kicking. Continue to do this motion over and over again without stopping. But make sure you keep your
balance and fluidity in motion. This exercise is excellent to adapt your
body to move with ease, rhythm and grace. As you become more adaptable to the movement, increase your speed and work
toward shortening the distance by more and more execution. Eventually, you
can substitute a backfist punch for the sweeping movement of your hand.
The backward thrust is like the quick backward movement except that it carries your body backward quicker and deeper. From an on guard position,
push the ball of your front foot to initiate the motion which straightens
your front knee and shifts the weight to the rear foot. Then the front
foot, without pausing from the initial motion, leaves the floor and crosses
your rear foot. Just before it lands, your rear leg, with its knee bent and
acting like a spring, should thrust your body with a sudden straightening
of its leg. You should land on the ball of your front foot just a second
before your rear foot touches the floor. That one quick motion should carry
your body backward at least two steps. The backward burst carries your body just as fast as the forward lunge. In
the same test, it took exactly the same time to travel eight feet backward
as forward-3/4 of a second. But by comparison, the classical movement covered the same distance in one second flat.
For your daily training, do the backward burst for speed, balance and rhythm instead of deep penetration. Move with lightness of your feet and
keep practicing toward shortening the distance. When jogging, rapidly shuffle your feet and keep jogging. Or you can do a forward burst while your partner does the backward burst.
From an on-guard position, attempt to reach your partner with a light side
kick as he tries to keep his distance. Then reverse your positions. Learn not to hurl yourself recklessly at your partner. Instead, try to
narrow the gap of space in a calm and exact manner. Keep drilling faster
and faster by lunging 200 to 300 times per day. Acceleration can be increased only by discipline in your workout.
Quotes From Bruce Lee
"Training deals not with an object, but with the human spirit and human emotions."
"Optimism is a faith that leads to success."
"I too challenged many established instructors. But I have learned that challenging means one thing but how you choose to react to it means something else entirely. What is your reaction to it? How does it get you? If you are secure within yourself, you treat it very, very lightly because you ask yourself: 'Am I really afraid of that man?' 'Do I have any doubts that that man is going to get me?' And if I do not have such doubts and if I do not have such feelings, then I would certainly treat it very lightly."
JEET KUNE DO
The Art and Philosophy of Bruce Lee
by Dan Inosanto
"Bruce Lee showed
me life and truth," states Dan Inosanto, the genius' premier
disciple and the man Bruce Lee personally groomed to help point the way
for those seriously interested in pursuing his recently conceived method
of self-discovery, Jeet Kune Do.
Aside from his immediate family, Dan Inosanto was as close to Bruce Lee
as anyone. They experienced an immediate rapport based on mutual respect
for each other's extraordinary martial capabilities, soon becoming fast
friends. So much so, that in 1966, Dan named his first child, a girl,
Diana Lee, after his now famous companion. The pair traveled together,
trained together, gave demonstrations together, taught together,
experimented together, socialized together, and yes, even made movies
together - at the same thne cultivating one of the most heartwarming
relationships in the torrid annals of martial arts.
-- INSIDE KUNG-FU
OF JEET KUNE DO
by Bruce Lee
My husband Bruce always
considered himself a martial artist first and an actor second. At the
age of 13, Bruce started lessons in the wing chun style of gung-fu for
the purpose of self-defense. Over the next 19 years, he transformed his
knowledge into a science, an art, a philosophy and a way of life. He
trained his body through exercise and practice; he trained his mind
through reading and reflecting and he recorded his thoughts and ideas
constantly over the 19 years. The pages of this book represent the pride
of a life's work.
In his lifelong quest for self-knowledge and personal expression, Bruce
was constantly studying, analyzing and modifying all available relative
information; his principle source was his personal library which
consisted of over 2,000 books dealing with all forms of physical
conditioning, martial arts, fighting techniques, defenses and related
In 1970, Bruce sustained a rather severe injury to his back. His doctors
ordered him to discontinue the practice of martial arts and to remain in
bed to allow his back to heal. This was probably the most trying and
dispiriting time in Bruce's life. He stayed in bed, virtually flat on
his back for six months, but he couldn't keep his mind from
working—the result of which is this book. The bulk of these writings
was done at that time, but many scattered notes were recorded at earlier
and later times. Bruce's personal study notes reveal that he was
particularly impressed by the writings of Edwin L. Haislet, Julio
Martinez Castello, Hugo and James Castello and Roger Crosnier. Many of
Bruce's own theories are directly related to those expressed by these
Bruce had decided to finish the book in 1971 but his film work kept him
from completing it. He also vacillated about the advisability of
publishing his work because he felt it might be used for wrong purposes.
He did not intend it to be a "how-to" book or a "learn
kung-fu in 10 easy lessons" book. He intended it as a record of one
man's way of thinking and as a guide, not a set of instructions. If you
can read it in this light, there is much to be aware of on these pages.
And, you probably will have many questions, the answers to which you
must seek within yourself. When you have finished this book, you will
know Bruce Lee better, but hopefully you will also know yourself better.
Now, open your mind and read, understand, and experience, and when
you've reached that point, discard this book. The pages are best used
for cleaning up a mess — as you will see.
In the hands of a singular man, simple things carefully placed ring with
an undeniable harmony. Bruce's orchestration of martial arts had that
quality, most apparent in his combat motion. Immobilized for several
months with an injured back, he picked up a pen. There, too, he wrote as
he spoke, as he moved—with directness and with honesty.
Like listening to a musical composition, understanding the elements
within it adds a specialness to the sound. For this reason, Linda Lee
and I are liberalizing the introduction of Bruce's book to explain how
it came about.
The Tao of Jeet Kune Do actually began before Bruce was born. The
classical wing chun style that started him on his way was developed 400
years before his time. The 2,000 or so books he owned and the countless
books he read, described the individual "discoveries" of
thousands of men before him. There's nothing new within this book; there
are no secrets. "It's nothing special," Bruce used to say. And
so it wasn't.
Bruce's special key was knowing himself and his own capabilities to
-- Linda Lee
LEE - VOLUME 3
JEET KUNE DO
Bruce Lee's Commentaries On The Martial Way
Edited by John Little
In 1970, Bruce Lee
suffered a back injury which confined him to bed. Rather than allowing
this to slow his growth as a martial artist he read feverishly on
Eastern philosophy and Western psychology, constructing his own views on
the totality of combat and life. It was during this time that Lee wrote
7 volumes containing his thoughts, ideas, opinions, and research into
the art of unarmed combat, and how it applies to everyday life. Some of
this material was posthumously published in 1975, but much more existed.
This lost material is now available for the first time.
This landmark book serves as a complete presentation of Bruce Lee's art
of jeet kune do. The development of his unique martial art
form, its principles, core techniques, and lesson plans are presented
here in Lee's own words. It also features Lee's illustrative sketches
and his remarkable treatise on the nature of combat, success through
martial arts, and the importance of a positive mental aptitude in
training. In addition, there are a series of "Questions Every
Martial Artist Must Ask Himself," that Lee posed to himself and
intended to explore as part of his own development, but never lived to
complete. Jeet Kune Do: Bruce Lee's Commentaries on the Martial Way is
the book every Bruce Lee fan must have.
John Little is
considered one of the worlds's authorities on Bruce Lee, his training
methods, and philosophies. Little is the only person who has ever been
authorized to review the entirety of Lee's personal notes, sketches, and
reading annotations. He is currently the Associate Publisher of Bruce
Lee magazine and the managing editor of Knowing is Not Enough, the
official newsletter of the Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do Nucleus.
"Bruce Lee's long
awaited magnum opus on his art of jeet kune do has finally arrived! An
instant classic!" --Inside Kung-Fu
"The Bruce Lee
Library stands as the definitive presentation of Bruce Lee's magnificent
legacy. Each volume belongs on the bookshelf of every serious martial
artist." --Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do Nucleus
LEE’S TOUGHEST FIGHT
by Michael Dorgan (from Official Karate, July 1980)
Considering the skill of the
opponents and the complete absence of referees, rules, and safety
equipment, it was one hell of a fight that took place that day in
December. It may have been the most savagely elegant exhibition of
unarmed combat of the century. Yet, at a time when top fighters tend to
display their skills only in huge closed-circuited arenas, this battle
was fought in virtual secrecy behind locked doors. And at a time when
millions of dollars can ride on the outcome of a championship fight,
these champions of another sort competed not for money, but for more
personal and passionate reasons. The time was late winter, 1964; the
setting was a small kung fu school in Oakland, California. Poised at the
center of the room, with approximately 140 pounds packed tightly on his
5’7" frame, was the operator of the school, a 24-year old martial
artist of Chinese ancestry but American birth who, within a few years,
would skyrocket to international attention as a combination fighter/film
star. A few years after that, at age 32, he would die under mysterious
circumstances. His name, of course, was Bruce Lee. Also poised in the
center of the room was another martial artist. Taller but lighter, with
his 135 pounds stretched thinly over 5’10", this fighter was also
24 and also of Chinese descent. Born in Hong Kong and reared in the
south of mainland China, he had only recently arrived in San
Francisco’s teeming Chinatown, just across the bay from Oakland.
Though over the next 15 years he would become widely known in martial
arts circles and would train some of America’s top martial artists, he
would retain a near disdain for publicity and the commercialization of
his art, and consequently would remain unknown to the general public.
His name: Wong Jack Man.
What happened after the fighters approached the center of the room has
become a chapter of Chinatown’s "wild history," that branch
of Chinese history usually anchored in fact but always richly
embellished by fantasy, a history that tells much about a time and place
with little that’s reliable about any particular incident. Exactly how
the fight proceeded and just who won are still matters of controversy,
and will likely remain so. But from the few available firsthand accounts
and other evidence, it is possible to piece together a reasonably
reliable picture that reveals two overriding truths. First, considering
the skill of the opponents and the complete absence of referees, rules,
and safety equipment, it was one hell of a fight that took place that
day in December. And second, Bruce Lee, who was soon to rival Mao Tse
Tung as the world’s most famous Chinese personality, was dramatically
affected by the fight, perhaps fatally so.
Due to the human desire to be known as an eye witness to a famous event,
it is easier to obtain firsthand accounts of the fight from persons who
were not there than from those who were. As to how many persons actually
viewed the contest, even that is a point of dispute. Bruce Lee’s wife
Linda recalls a total of 13 persons, including herself. But the only
person that she identifies other than her husband and his associate
James Lee, who died of cancer shortly before her husband died, is Wong
Jack Man. Wong, meanwhile, remembers only seven persons being present,
including the three Lees. Of the three persons other than the Lees and
himself, only one, a tai chi teacher named William Chen (not to be
confused with the William Chi Cheng Chen who teaches the art in New
York), could be located. Chen recalls about 15 persons being present but
can identify none other than Wong and the Lees. So except for a skimpy
reference to the fight by Bruce Lee himself in a magazine interview, we
are left with only three firsthand accounts of the battle. They are
accounts which vary widely.
Linda Lee, in her book Bruce Lee: The Man Only I Knew, initially
dismisses the fight as follows: "The two came out, bowed formally
and then began to fight. Wong adopted a classic stance whereas Bruce,
who at the time was still using his Wing Chun style, produced a series
of straight punches. "Within a minute, Wong’s men were trying to
stop the fight as Bruce began to warm to his task. James Lee warned them
to let the fight continue. A minute later, with Bruce continuing the
attack in earnest, Wong began to backpedal as fast as he could. For an
instant, indeed, the scrap threatened to degenerate into a farce as Wong
actually turned and ran. But Bruce pounced on him like a springing
leopard and brought him to the floor where he began pounding him into a
state of demoralization.
"Is that enough?" shouted Bruce.
"That’s enough!" pleaded Wong in desperation.
So the entire matter was just another quick triumph for the man who
frequently boasted he could whip any man in the world. Or was it? Later
in her book, Linda Lee hints that the fight may have amounted to more
than the brief moment of violent diversion she had earlier described.
"Bruce’s whole life was an evolving process - and this was never
seen to greater effect than in his work with the martial arts," she
begins. "The clash with Wong Jack Man metamorphosed his own
personal expression of kung fu. Until this battle, he had largely been
content to improvise and expand on his original Wing Chun style, but
then he suddenly realized that although he had won comparatively easily,
his performance had been neither crisp of efficient. The fight, he
realized, ought to have ended within a few seconds of him striking the
first blows - instead of which it had dragged on for three minutes. In
addition, at the end, Bruce had felt unusually winded which proved to
him he was far from perfect condition. So he began to dissect the fight,
analyzing where he had gone wrong and seeking to find ways where he
could have improved his performance. It did not take him long to realize
that the basis of his fighting art, the Wing Chun style, was
insufficient. It laid too much stress on hand techniques, had very few
kicking techniques and was, essentially, partial."
Still later in the book, Linda Lee adds: "The Wong Jack Man fight
also caused Bruce to intensify his training methods. From that date, he
began to seek out more and more sophisticated and exhaustive training
methods. I shall try to explain these in greater detail later, but in
general the new forms of training meant that Bruce was always doing
something, always training some part of his body or keeping it in
Lee's Method of Training :
One of the most neglected elements of martial artists is the physical workout. Too much time is spent on developing skill in techniques and not enough on physical participation.
Practicing your skill in fighting is important, but so is maintaining your overall physical condition. Actually both are needed to be successful in a real fight. Training is a skill of disciplining your mind, developing your power and supplying endurance to your body. Proper training is for the purpose of building your body and avoiding activities or substances that will deteriorate or injure it.
Bruce Lee was a specimen of health. He trained every day and consumed only the proper food. A1though he drank tea, he never drank coffee - instead he normally consumed milk. He was a martinet who never let his work interfere with his training. Even when he was sent to India to find suitable locations for filming, he took along his running shoes.
Lee's daily training consisted of aerobic exercises, plus others which were patterned to develop his skill in fighting. He varied his exercise to avoid boredom. One of his favorite exercises was running four miles a day in 24 to 25 minutes. He would change his tempo while running - after several miles of constant, even strides, he would sprint several feet and then return to easier running. Between changes in running tempo, he would also shuffle his feet. Lee was not particular where he ran: at the beach, in parks or woods, up and down hills or on surfaced streets.
Besides running, Lee also rode an exercycle to develop his endurance, legs and cardiovascular muscles. He usually rode full speed - 35 to 40 miles an hour - continuously for 45 minutes to an hour. Frequently, he would ride his exercycle right after his running.
Another aerobic exercise that Lee scheduled in his routine was skipping rope, which you can adopt. This exercise not only develops your stamina and leg muscles, but also improves you, makes you light on your feet. Only recently, physiologists have learned, by several tests, that skipping rope is more beneficial than jogging. Ten minutes of skipping rope is equivalent to 30 minutes of jogging. Both are very beneficial exercises for the cardiovascular system.
Skipping rope properly is one of the best exercises for developing a sense of balance. First, skip on one foot, holding the other in front of you, then rotate your foot, skipping on the alternate foot with each revolution of the rope, from a gradual pace to a really fast tempo. Minimize your arm-swing; instead, use your wrist to swing the rope over. Lift your foot slightly above the ground, just enough for the rope to pass. Skip for three minutes (equivalent to a round in a boxing match); then rest one minute only, before you continue for another round. Three rounds of this exercise are sufficient for a good workout. As you become conditioned to skipping, you can omit the rest period and do the exercise for as long as 30 minutes straight. The best rope is made of leather, with ball bearings in the handles.
Additional endurance exercises are shadowboxing and actual sparring. Shadowboxing is a good agility exercise which also builds up your speed. Relax your body and learn to move easily and smoothly. At first, concentrate on your form, and move lightly on your feet until it becomes natural and comfortable - then work faster and harder. It is a good idea to start your workout with shadowboxing to loosen your muscles. Imagine your worst enemy stands before you and you are going to demolish him. If you use your imagination intensely, you can instill into yourself an almost-real fighting frame of mind. Besides developing stamina, shadowboxing increases your speed, creates ideas, and establishes techniques to be used spontaneously and intuitively. Going several rounds is the best way to learn proper footwork.
Too many beginners are too lazy to drive themselves. Only by hard and continuous exercise will you develop endurance. You have to drive yourself to the point of exhaustion (you will be out of breath, and can expect to feel muscle aches in a day or two). The best endurance training method seems to be a lengthy period of exercise interspersed with many brief but high-intensity endeavors. Stamina-types of exercises should be done gradually and cautiously increased. Six weeks in this kind of training is a minimum for any sports that require considerable amounts of endurance. It takes years to be in peak condition, and unfortunately, stamina is quickly lost when you cease to maintain high-conditioning exercises. According to some medical experts, you lose most of your benefit from exercises if you skip more than a day between workouts.
To warm up, select light, easy exercises to loosen your muscles and to prepare them for more strenuous work. Besides improving your performance, warming-up exercises are necessary to prevent injury to your muscles. No smart athlete will use his hand or leg violently without first warming it up carefully. These light exercises should dictate as closely as possible the ensuing, more strenuous type of movement.
How long should you warm up? This depends on several aspects. If you live in a colder area, or during the cold winter, you have to do longer warm-up exercises than do those who live in a warmer climate. A longer warm-up is recommended for the early morning rather than for the afternoon. Generally, five or ten minutes of warm-up exercises are adequate, but some people need much more.
A ballet dancer spends at least two hours. He commences with very basic movements, gradually but consistently increasing the activity and intensity, until he is ready to make his appearance.
Bruce Lee learned that certain exercises can help you greatly in your performance, and others can impede or even impair your execution of techniques. He found that beneficial exercises are those that do not cause antagonistic tension in your muscles.
Your muscles respond differently to different exercises. During a static or slow exercise such as a handstand or lifting heavy weights such as a barbell, the muscles on both sides of the joints operate strongly to set the body in a desirable position. But in a rapid activity such as running, jumping or throwing, the muscles that close the joints contract and the muscles directly opposite elongate to allow the movement. Although there is still tension on both muscles, the strain is considerably less on the elongated, or lengthened one.
When there is excessive or antagonistic tension on the elongated muscles, it hinders and weakens your movement. It acts like a brake, causing premature fatigue, generally associated only with new activity - demanding different muscles to perform. A coordinated, natural athlete is able to perform in any sporting activity with ease because he moves with little antagonistic tension. On the other hand, the novice performs with excessive tension and effort, creating a lot of wasted motions. Although this coordination trait is more a native talent in some than in others, all can improve it by intensive training.
Here are some of the exercises that you can adapt to your daily training. For flexibility, place your foot on a railing or other object, keeping your leg horizontal to the ground- it could be slightly lower or higher, depending on your flexibility.
For the beginner, do not attempt any strenuous exercise. Instead, after placing your foot on the railing, just move your toes toward you, keeping your extended foot flexed straight. After a few minutes, rotate your foot. In a few days, as your leg muscles are limbered, you can proceed to the next step. Press your knee to keep your leg straight and lean forward from the hip as much as possible without injuring your muscles. From this exercise you then proceed to the next step. Keeping your extended leg straight, push your hand downward. As you progress, you'll notice that you are also beginning to lean forward, putting more stress on your leg muscles. Finally you are able to touch your toes. After some months, you may be able to wrap your hand around your foot even with the support raised higher.
Other leg flexibility exercises include leg splits and hanging leg raises. To do this exercise, use a long rope supported by a pulley. A noose encircles your foot. Pull the other end of the rope to the maximum height your leg muscles will bear without hurting yourself. Try to keep your foot horizontally aligned throughout the exercise. This exercise allows you to execute high side kicks. You should rotate your legs in all these exercises.
Advanced students who like to do exceptionally high kicking can progress into trampoline exercises. Lee uses two light dumbbells and jumps high to develop both balance and springy legs. Once he can control his body on a trampoline, he attempts leg splits, a high front kick, and a flying side kick.
Other limbering exercises include body stretches. After you have developed elasticity in your leg muscles, you should be able to stretch your body as far back as possible, then bend forward as far as possible, until your head is touching your knees.
No one could help but notice Lee's abdominal muscles. "One of the most important phases of fighting," he used to say, his your midsection." To do this, Lee concentrated on several exercises that you can also adopt. The most popular are the sit-ups on a slant board. Secure your feet, bend your knees and after placing your hands behind your head, lift your body toward your feet. Do as many as you can until you feel the strain around your abdomen. After reaching 50 to 100 repetitions, you can place a weight such as a dumbbell or barbell plate behind your neck and do your sit-ups.
Another excellent way of doing sit-ups is to sit at the edge of a bench, have someone secure your ankles, and lower your body as far down as possible toward the floor. This exercise stretches your mid- section much more, but it is more difficult to do. If you have a chinning bar, you can also develop your abdominal muscles by hanging onto the bar with both hands and slowly lifting both legs until they are extended horizontally. Keep them in that position for as long as possible and try to beat your last record each time you do the exercise. Buy a kitchen timer to help you keep track of time.
Another excellent exercise is the leg raise. Lie on the floor, keeping your back flush to the floor by pushing in your midsection, and lift your head slightly until you can see your feet. Keep your legs together and straight. Then lift them upward slowly, as high as possible. Then slowly return them to the floor.
To get the most out of this exercise, do not let your feet touch the floor. Keep them about an inch above the floor and start to raise them again. Do as many repetitions as possible. If you have a weight lifting bench, you can do it with the legs extending beyond the board. This exercise is also good for your lower back muscles.
One advantage in executing an abdominal exercise is that it can be done while you are doing another activity. For instance, Lee used to watch television while lying on the floor with his head slightly up and keeping his feet spread out and slightly above the floor.
To toughen your midsection, get a medicine ball and have someone drop it on your abdomen. To vary your exercise you can also have someone throw it directly to your midsection. Let the ball hit your body before catching it.
If you do your workout alone, you can use your heavy punching bag as a substitute for the medicine ball. Swing the heavy bag and let it hit your body. You can adjust the spot of impact either by moving forward or backward. If you want a heavier impact, swing the bag harder.
In your daily life, there's always an opportunity for more supplemental exercises. For instance, park your car several blocks from your destination and walk briskly. Avoid the elevator and use the stairs instead. While climbing the stairs, you can have a good workout, either by running up or by skipping a step or two.
Modified Gung Fu is a system that was developed by William C. Hamlin. This eclectic approach to martial arts draws on Hamlin's years of experience in Hapkido, Kali, Tai Chi, Western Boxing, Wing Chun, and Jun Fan Gung Fu.
This defensive tactics system was developed as a result of training experience in certain martial systems, that over the years have become connected within and expressed as a connected body of unified martial art, as opposed to being expressed in a compartmentalized, non-unified fashion. Modified Gung Fu is not some new idea, nor is it some new classical martial art. Quite the contrary. Modified Gung Fu is William C. Hamlin's expression as previously stated of the connectedness that has come about as a result of the realization that all martial art is connected. If martial technique is viewed from this particular perspective, the martial practitioner will benefit greatly, as one's body of martial art becomes artless art, formless form, and above all else, void of self and all preconceived notions previously held. As the great martial philosopher Bruce Lee once said, "How can you taste my cup of tea, if you have not first emptied your cup?" The defensive Tactics of Modified Gung Fu is just a term that has been coined by William C. Hamlin to give his expression of martial art a name, nothing more. This system of defensive tactics would never have come to fruition were it not for the "Great Teachers" that have founded and passed on their genius to their students. It is their great shoulders that we who are benefiting from their genius stand upon, nothing more and certainly nothing less. It is to those "Great Teachers" that the Defensive Tactics of Modified Gung Fu are dedicated. For were it not for them, this personal expression of their genius would not be expressed.
The foundation for the Defensive Tactics of Modified Gung Fu is the classical Korean martial system of Hapkido. Hapkido was founded by the late Yong Sool Choi in the early 1940's in Choi's home country of Korea. Founder Choi was taught the traditional principles of Hapkido at a very early age. Many beliefs surround the origins of Hapkido and how it truly originated. The account of one of Choi's closest disciples is as follows: "Today Hapkido has been brought to light by the Father of Hapkido, Yong Sool Choi . . . The Founder studied deep in the mountains of Korea since the age of nine years. By the time he had come back to the world, Korea had been liberated from Japanese colonial rule." Founder Choi at that time showed all that he had been taught during that time to a few select outstanding disciples. Kwang Sik Myoung, Korean Hapkido Ancient Art of Masters (World Hapkido Federation, 1976).
Hapkido with it's hundreds of kickboxing techniques known as "Jok Sool", along with it's literally thousands of joint manipulation and ground grappling techniques, as well as it's adeptness at teaching various combat tools (weapons), has proven it's self to be not only a very classical combat system with countless victories on the ancient battlefields of Korea, but a martial system that is relevant to the modern combat environment as well. Hapkido has much to offer to not only the modern law enforcement officer, the battlefield solider, the spec ops trooper, but has much to offer to the civilian martial practitioner as well.
Lineage of Hapkido
Yong Sool Choi Hapkido
The lineage of the Founder's system of Hapkido begins as he passed his art to his disciple, Han Jae Ji. Master Han Jae Ji passed his knowledge on to Master Jae Ok Myoung who passed his knowledge on to Master Han Bae Hyun, who passed his knowledge on to Master Armando Granados, who passed his knowledge directly on to William C. Hamlin.
The lineage of Founder Master Pelligrinni's system of Combat Hapkido begins as his teacher In Sun Seo passed his art to Master Pelligrinni, and Master Pelligrinni passed knowledge of his system correspondingly on to William C. Hamlin.
History of Kali-Arnis-Eskrima
The word Kali is used to identify the martial art that was prevalent in the southern Philippines during the period prior to the nation of Spain conquering certain islands in the Philippine archipelago. The art of Kali is a combat art that finds its origins mainly in the southern islands in the Philippines that was used to defend the inhabitants of those islands from both foreign and domestic invaders. The art of Kali enabled its practitioners to win many decisive battles over those invaders, which made the martial art of Kali a very practical and effective system of combat art. (Wiley, 1997).
The term Kali was outlawed by the Spanish conquerors of the Philippines. This meant that if anyone even uttered the word "Kali" (much less practiced the art), the Spanish authorities could sentence the violator to death. As a result outlawing the word Kali, the terms Eskrima, and Arnis were coined to describe the fighting art of Kali.
The term Arnis is used to describe the use of three methods of classical combat related to the art of Kali. They are: espada y daga, which means sword and dagger; solo baston, which means single stick; and sinawali, which means weaving, but is translated to denote the utilization of two sticks in combat. (Corcoran and Farkas, 1993).
The term Eskrima is another term used to describe the combat art of Kali, which was coined by the Spanish to describe the traditional European system of fencing (sword play). The combat art of Eskrima implements in combat the baston, sinawali, espada y daga, spear and shield, as well as empty hand weapon defense. (Draeger and Smith, 1969).
The combat arts of Kali-Arnis-Eskrima were presented to me by my Teacher Punong Guro Leonard Trigg. My Teacher has studied these Filipino arts under many great Masters. Of those Masters he has studied the system of Modern Arnis under Professor Remy Presas as well as Professor Presas' brother Professor Ernesto Presas. He has also studied the Villabrille-Largusa Kali system. Moving on he has studied under the late Punong Guro Edgar G. Sulite in the Lameco Eskrima and is now the Grandmaster (Punong Guro) of the Lameco Eskrima System. He has also studied the LucayLucay Kali-Jun Fan-Jeet Kune Do system under the late Maestro Ted LucayLucay and is now the Grandmaster (Maestro) of that system of martial art as well. There are many other great Masters that Punong Guro Trigg has studied the Filipino martial arts under, but for the sake of belaboring the point, we have chosen to name the few Masters above. However, we in no way wish to take away from the significant contribution of the other Teachers that have been highly influential in the lineage of Punong Guro Trigg's martial development.
The combat art of Natural Spirit Kali-Arnis-Eskrima founded by Datu Kelly S. Worden and was presented to me by Datu Worden. Datu Worden has studied under Professor Remy Presas and was granted the honorable status of Datu under Professor Presas. Datu Worden has integrated the many martial systems he has learned over the years into what he has termed "Natural Spirit" which instructs martial application from a very non-classical conceptual perspective designed to connect the systems, not systematize the connections. This unique approach to martial art instruction has been a tremendous asset to myself, my students, and the martial art community at large.
Wing Chun :
The Legend of Wing Chun Gung Fu
After the burning of the Siu Lum Temple, Ng Mui, a Buddhist nun, would be the lone individual to propagate the Wing Chun Gung Fu system that the Siu Lum Monks had been developing for many years. The term "Wing Chun" literally translated means beautiful springtime and was the name of a woman that was the disciple of Ng Mui. Madam Wing Chun as this disciple was so named, learned this system of martial art to repel a man who wanted to take her as his wife, and steal her inheritance. According to legend, she studied under Ng Mui for 100 days, and when the man came to claim her, Madam Wing Chun repelled him with great skill. As time went on, Madam Wing Chun married a man of her choosing and instructed him in the art of Wing Chun. As the legend goes, Madam Wing Chun's husband went on to sell the secrets of the system to other instructors of that day. (Chun and Conner, 1992).
Wing Chun Gung Fu From a Historical Perspective
Wing Chun Gung Fu was developed by the Siu Lum Monks of Honan Province in China. The synthesis of this art took place during the Ching Dynasty over 250 years ago. History has it that the need for developing a system like Wing Chun was such because of the long period of time it would take to train a Siu Lum Monk in the fighting art of just one animal system. During the time of the Ching Dynasty, the Manchus were in control of China and as a result of the Manchus being in Power, there was much oppression in the land. The Hans, who were the minority nobles in China at that time, began to train an army to overthrow the Manchus. The Siu Lum Temple became the training place for this army of revolutionaries, and the laboratory with which the combat art of Wing Chun was developed. (Cheung, 1983).
The Development of Wing Chun Gung Fu
Wing Chun Gung Fu was synthesized by the Siu Lum Monks, by combining the most effective techniques from the animal systems of Gung Fu. This connecting the systems approach to the synthesis of Wing Chun, would enable the student to become a more proficient practitioner in half the time it would take students in other animal systems to become proficient. The art of Wing Chun was not implemented against the Manchus, beacuse the Shaolin Temple was raided, and burned by the Manchus before the implementation of the system of Wing Chun Gung Fu could occur. (Cheung, 1983).
Lineage of Wing Chun Gung Fu
Grandmaster Yip Man passed his knowledge down to one of his top students Ho Kam Ming who passed his knowledge down to Master Augustine Fong who is correspondingly passing his knowledge down to William C. Hamlin.
Master Augustine Fong is the founder of Fong's Wing Chun Federation located in Tuscon, Arizona. Master Fong Has studied Wing Chun Gung Fu for over 37 years. Master Fong was born in Macao where he bagan his formal training in Wing Chun Gung Fu under the renowned Master Ho Kam Ming, who was a top student under Grandmaster Yip Man. Master Fong moved to Kowloon in 1967 where he assisted Master Ho in founding a Wing Chun academy. In 1969 Master Fong emigrated to the U.S. where he settled in Tucson, Arizona where he resides to this day. Master Fong established his Wing Chun Headquarters
(Fong's Wing Chun Gung Fu Federation). Master Fong to this day remains devoted to the exact principles of the complete system of Wing Chun Gung Fu.
WHEN PREPARATION MEETS OPPORTUNITY
The following is excerpted from the book "Bruce Lee: The Art of Expressing the Human Body,"
. WHEN PREPARATION MEETS OPPORTUNITY
By Linda Lee Cadwell
Allow me to describe to you a particular day in Bruce Lee's life - a day when he failed to achieve the level of expectation he had set for himself; a day that became a turning point in his life. The stage for the unfolding drama was the Jun Fan Gung Fu Institute on Broadway in Oakland, California, a training gym established by Bruce and James Y. Lee. Because I was about eight months pregnant with Brandon, I recall quite clearly that the events of this day took place either in late December 1964 or early in January 1965.
Present to witness the historic milestone were Jimmy Lee and myself and several martial artists from San Francisco, whose names I never knew, although they appeared to be elder masters. The featured players were Bruce and a Chinese martial artist (younger than the elders), who undoubtedly had been picked to represent the interests of the San Francisco group. Discussion of the issue that led up to this meeting could be an essay in itself, when viewed from the perspective of Chinese encounters with the West going back at least to the Boxer Rebellion. Suffice it to say that, in this instance, the traditionally trained Gung Fu masters did not look favorably on Bruce's teaching martial art to Westerners, or actually to anyone who was not Chinese. So strongly did they harbor this historically bound belief, that a formal challenge was issued to Bruce, insisting that he participate in a confrontation, the result of which would decide whether he could continue to teach the "foreign devils."
Bruce's philosophy echoed that of Confucius: "In teaching there should be no class distinctions."
Therefore, without hesitation or doubt, Bruce accepted the challenge and the date was set.
The fight that ensued is more important for the effect it had on the course of Bruce's life than for the result of the actual confrontation. However, here is a brief description of the physical action: Within moments of the initial clash, the Chinese Gung Fu man had proceeded to run in a circle around the room, out a door that led to a small back room, then in through another door to the main room. He completed this circle several times, with Bruce in hot pursuit. Finally, Bruce brought the man to the floor, pinning him helplessly, and shouted (in Chinese), "Do you give up?" After repeating this question two or three times, the man conceded, and the San Francisco party departed quickly.
The entire fight lasted about three minutes, leaving James and me ecstatic that the decisive conquest was so quickly concluded. Not Bruce. Like it was yesterday, I remember Bruce sitting on the back steps of the gym, head in hands, despairing over his inability to finish off the opponent with efficient technique, and the failure of his stamina when he attempted to capture the running man. For what probably was the first time in his life, Bruce was winded and weakened. Instead of triumphing in his win, he was disappointed that his physical condition and Gung Fu training had not lived up to his expectations. This momentous event, then, was the impetus for the evolution of Jeet Kune Do and the birth of his new training regime.
Let me emphasize that, to my or just about anybody else's observation, in early 1965 Bruce appeared to be in superb physical condition. Growing up in Hong Kong, Bruce was not an especially genetically gifted youngster. In fact, his mother recounted to me that Bruce was a skinny little kid whose schedule of attending school in the day and (often) working on films late into the night did not foster a healthy lifestyle. However, from the age of thirteen, when he began to study Wing Chun under Master Yip Man, Bruce trained continuously and arduously on a daily basis, so that when I met him in 1963 he appeared to be in great shape. After the Oakland confrontation, this was not good enough for Bruce -- he knew he had to do more and better to be prepared to realize his dreams when the opportunity arose.
For Bruce, it was not simply a matter of running extra miles, doing more reps, or increasing poundage in his weight training. He approached the resolution of the "problem" in a scientific manner: (1) Set new goals for fitness and health, (2) research the best ways to accomplish the desired changes, and (3) implement the new methods using a scientific approach, recording progress and modifying the approach when necessary. There was nothing haphazard about Bruce's training regime, neither was he particularly "lucky" in having started out with natural physical gifts. The greatest talents that Bruce brought to realizing his dreams were intelligence and curiosity (hand in hand, a powerful combination), dedication and perseverance (stick-to-itiveness even in the face of intervening obstacles), and focus (enjoying the journey as much as the destination).
Sometimes I am asked, "How did he have the time to do so much training?" The answer is simple-that was how he decided to spend his time. The choices he made in each of his 24-hour days included devoting several hours to training his body and mind in order to be the best that he could be. This is also where the wealth of his imagination came into play. In addition to regularly scheduled training times, it was "normal" for Bruce to be involved in several things at the same time: reading a book, curling a dumbbell, and stretching a leg, for example; or playing some kind of physical game with the children; or doing isometric-type exercises while driving his car. As a child he was nicknamed, "Never Sits Still"; he was the same as an adult.
The process that Bruce undertook to achieve his goal of superior fitness forms the contents [of the book,] The Art of Expressing the Human Body, the title of which was so aptly coined by Bruce in describing his way of martial art. Bruce's martial art, Jeet Kune Do, which is an all-encompassing approach to living life at the pinnacle of developed potential, naturally includes training the physical body to achieve its peak performance. A fitting description of Bruce's devotion to his art is to say that he attained the apex of functional beauty.
When reading this volume, it is more important that the reader recognize the process Bruce employed rather than dwell on the specific exercises and daily schedules. Rather than merely copy exactly what Bruce Lee did in his exercise sessions, one should take note of the numerous sources-both technical and through personal observation-Bruce employed in his research and seek to follow this scientific pattern of problem resolution. With the explosion of the fitness- health-wellness industries in the past several decades, there certainly is a great amount of information available to the inspired student. Bruce would have immersed himself in the new research and would encourage you to do likewise.
Always improving, never arriving at the peak, but always undergoing the process, Bruce enjoyed the never-ending journey toward physical perfection. In other words, the means were as important as the goal, which was to be prepared when the opportunity arose to share his "art of expressing the human body." The record that survives of Bruce's preparation for opportunity consists, of course, of his classic films as well as the training notes he left, many of which are contained in this volume.
For myself, Bruce has served as a lifelong inspiration to be physically active and health- conscious. Throughout our lives together he was my teacher as well as husband, friend, and father of my children. I continue to rely on his example for daily motivation. Now, in the form of this book, an opportunity arises for the reader to share in Bruce's art and inspiration.
Paraphrasing Aristotle, the exclusive sign of a thorough knowledge is the power of teaching. It will become evident to the reader that Bruce had a thorough knowledge of fitness and training. Rather than clinging to the bits of factual information in this volume, it is more important to understand the method. We can all show our gratitude to Bruce for the example he left us by allowing the gift of Bruce's teaching to empower us to know "the way" to reach our maxi- mum potential so that preparation will arise to meet opportunity.
" Using no way as way, using no limitation as limitation"